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Detoxification Glossary

Detoxification Programs work best when each person understands why they are detoxing from drugs or alcohol. Unfortunately, the listings of the side effects of drugs are often written using a mixture of common, medical and specialized terms that make understanding if we are experiencing the stated side effects very difficult. Novus Medical Detox Center has assembled a list of the most common side effect terms and provided definitions for you to use as you begin to understand the side effects of various drugs and the benefits of a Detoxification Program.

WARNING

PLEASE DO NOT STOP TAKING PRESCRIPTION DRUGS WITHOUT AN INDIVIDUALLY DESIGNED DETOXIFICATION PROGRAM DESIGNED BY A COMPETENT MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL. JUST CEASING TO TAKE MOST PRESCRIPTION DRUGS CAN CAUSE SERIOUS MEDICAL PROBLEMS THAT ARE SOMETIMES FATAL.

BY LAW IN MOST STATES, YOUR OWN MEDICAL DOCTOR HAS A LEGAL AND ETHICAL OBLIGATION TO ADVISE YOU AS TO THE EXACT USES FOR WHICH THESE DRUGS WERE APPROVED BY THE FDA AND THE SERIOUS SIDE EFFECTS AND POTENTIAL PROBLEMS YOU MIGHT EXPERIENCE BEFORE PRESCRIBING THESE DRUGS. BECAUSE OF THE SERIOUS PROBLEMS THAT CAN BE CREATED, HEED THE PRESCRIPTION LABEL WARNING NOT TO STOP TAKING THE DRUG WITHOUT FIRST CONSULTING WITH YOUR MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL.

DETOXIFICATION – WITHDRAWAL FROM THE DRUG – SHOULD ONLY BE DONE UNDER MEDICAL SUPERVISION.

To get the most out of this glossary, click any underlined term to view its definition (which will appear on the top line in your browser window). Use the backspace key or your browser’s “back” button to return to the paragraph you were studying.

 
A

Abdominal Cramp/Pain: A sudden, severe, uncontrollable and painful shortening and thickening of the muscles in the belly. The belly includes the stomach as well as the intestines, liver, kidneys, pancreas, spleen, gall bladder, and urinary bladder.

Abilify (Aripiprazole): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia (involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body).

Acne: An eruption of the oil glands of the skin, especially on the face, marked by pimples, blackheads, whiteheads, bumps, and more severely, by cysts and scarring.

Acute: A new, recent, sudden event.

Acute Renal Failure: A medical condition where the kidneys stop functioning properly to excrete waste products which, if not handled, can lead to death.

Addiction: A condition characterized by the inability to control a craving for something regardless of the damage it may be doing to them.

Addiction Drug Prescription Treatment: A treatment plan to allow the individual to safely withdraw from a prescription drug.

Addison’s disease: An endocrine or hormonal condition which can lead to weight loss, muscle weakness,fatigue and low blood pressure

Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s): These are medical reactions that occur when a person is given a drug which causes a serious medical problem. According to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, there are over 2 million serious adverse drug reactions costing over $136 BILLION yearly– greater than the total costs ofcardiovascular or diabetic care. ADR’s cause one out of five injuries or deaths per year to hospitalized patients and over 100,000 deaths annually. Only heart disease, cancer and strokes kill more Americans each year than adverse drug reactions.

64 percent of all patient visits to physicians result in a prescription. 2.8 billion prescriptions were actually filled in 2000 in the United States, about ten prescriptions for each individual in the United States. According to the CDER, adverse drug reactions increase dramatically after a patient is on four or more medications.
Through DNA testing, many of these adverse drug reactions can be prevented.

Aggravated Nervousness: A progressively worsening irritated and troubled state of mind.

Agitation: An emotionally disturbed state of mind possibly leading to sudden violent and forceful acts.

Agranulocytosis: A potentially life-threatening reaction where the body’s bone marrow does not produce enough white blood cells. A large number of drugs have been associated with agranulocytosis, including antiepileptics, antithyroid drugs and some antipsychotics (the atypical antipsychotic clozapine).

Akathisia: The inability to sit still.

Alcohol: A liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent. The use of the word alcohol almost always refers to ethanol or grain alcohol. Alcohol slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria to depression.

Alcohol Detox Program: A program to allow an alcoholic to safely stop drinking alcohol. Sometimes the process is referred to as “drying out.”

Alcoholism: A result of the excessive consumption of alcohol. It leads to physical harm and impairs one’s ability to function in society. One of the most common physical consequences of alcoholism is cirrhosis of the liver, a condition that can lead to death.

Allergy: An extreme sensitivity of body tissues triggered by substances in the air, drugs, or foods causing a reaction like sneezing, itching, asthma, hay fever, skin rashes, nausea and/or vomiting.

Alopecia: A loss of hair, baldness.

Alprazolam (Xanax): A benzodiazepine prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer. If used improperly it leads to dependency.

Amitriptyline Hydrochloride: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria to depression.

Amnesia: A long term or short term, partial or full memory loss created by emotional or physical shock, severe illness, or a blow to the head where the person was caused pain and became unconscious.

Amobarbital: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Amosecobarbital: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Amphetamine (Speed): A highly addictive synthetic nervous system stimulant that initially creates a sense of euphoria and self-confidence. However, maintaining this euphoria requires more and more of the drug which can lead to feelings of panic, confusion, severe heart and respiratory problems and death.

Analgesic: Something capable of relieving pain.

Anaphylaxis: A violent, sudden, and severe drop in blood pressure caused by a re-exposure to a foreign protein or a second dosage of a drug that may be fatal unless emergency treatment is given right away.

Anemia: A condition where the blood is no longer carrying enough oxygen, so the person looks pale and easily gets dizzy, weak and tired. More severely, a person can end up with an abnormal heart, as well as breathing and digestive difficulties.

Angioedema: An intense itching and swelling producing welts on the skin called hives, caused by an allergic reaction to internal or external agents. The reaction is common to a food or a drug. Chronic cases can last for a long period of time.

Anorgasmia: A failure to experience an orgasm.

Anorexia (Anorexia Nervosa): An eating disorder where there is a lack of food in the body. Normally associated with someone who “has” to be very thin.

Antibiotic: A drug that kills bacteria and other germs.

Anxiety Attack: Sudden and intense feelings of fear, terror, and dread physically creating shortness of breath, sweating, trembling and heart palpitations.

Apathy: A complete lack of concern or interest for things that ordinarily would be regarded as important or would normally cause concern.

Appendage: A body part that extends from the body like the legs, feet, hands, arms and nose.

Appetite Decreased: A lack of appetite despite the ordinary caloric demands of living with a resulting unintentional loss of weight.

Appetite Increased: An unusual hunger causing one to overeat.

Aropax (Paroxetine): An SSRI drug.

Arrhythmia: Any change from the normal heartbeat.

Arthralgia: A sudden sharp nerve pain in one or more joints.

Arthropathy: A joint disease or condition of abnormal joints.

Arthritis: A painfully inflamed and swollen joint. The reddened and swollen condition is brought on by a serious injury or shock to the body either from physical or emotional causes.

Aripiprazole (Abilify): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia (involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body).

Asthenia: A physically weak condition.

Asthma: A disease of the breathing system initiated by an allergic reaction or a chemical with repeated attacks ofcoughing, sticky mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. The disease can reach a state where it stops a person from exhaling, leading to unconsciousness and death.

Asymptomatic: Not having symptoms.

Atypical. Unusual or irregular.

Atypical antipsychotic : A class of drugs supposed to deal with a psychosis. They are prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The following are atypical antipsychotics: olanzapine (Zyprexa); quetiapine(Seroquel); risperidone (Risperdal); ziprasidone (Geodon); aripiprazole (Abilify) and sertindole (Serlect,Serdolect). The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia(involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body) and other serious side effects including death.

Auditory Hallucination: A condition of hearing things without the voices or noises being present.


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B

Back Discomfort: A severe physical distress in the area from the neck to the pelvis along or radiating from the spine.

Belching: A noisy release of gas from the stomach through the mouth; a burp.

Benzodiazepine: A drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects. Several Benzodiazepine drugs are: alprazolam (Xanax); bromazepam; clorazepate dipotassium; devazepide; flumazenil; flunitrazepam; halcion; medazepam; midazolam (Versed); nitrazepam;prazepam; temazepam (Restoril) and triazolam.

Bilirubin Increased: Bilirubin is a waste product of the breakdown of old blood cells. Bilirubin is sent to the liver to be made water-soluble so it can be eliminated from the body through emptying the bladder. A drug can interfere with or damage this normal liver function creating liver disease.

Bipolar Disorder: Mood that changes from depressed to abnormally excited. Mania. Frenzied, abnormally excited mood.

Black Box Warning: Black box warnings are designed to highlight special problems, particularly those that are serious, and to give health care professionals a clear understanding of a potential serious medical complication associated with a drug.

Bloating: An abnormal swelling of the belly most often caused by excessive intestinal gas.

Blood in Urine: A condition where blood is present when one empties the liquid waste product of the kidneysthrough the bladder by urinating in the toilet, turning the water pink to bright red or leaving spots of blood in the water after urinating.

BMI (Body Mass Index): A person’s weight in kilograms is divided by their height in meters squared.

Bradycardia: The heart rate is slowed from 72 beats per minute, which is normal, to below 60 beats per minute in an adult.

Breath Shortness: Unnatural breathing using a lot of effort resulting in not enough air taken in by the body.

Breast Neoplasm: A tumor or cancer on the breasts of a woman.

Bromazepam: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Bronchitis: Inflammation of the two main breathing tubes leading from the windpipe to the lungs. The disease is marked with coughing, a low-grade fever, chest pain, and hoarseness, caused by an allergic reaction.

Bruise: Damage to the skin resulting in a purple-green-yellow skin coloration that’s caused by breaking the blood vessels in the area without breaking the surface of the skin.

Bruxism: Grinding and clenching of teeth while sleeping.

Bufotenine: A hallucinogen originally derived from the secretions of toads.

Bulimia (Bulimia Nervosa): An eating disorder in which there are spells of binge eating followed by intentional purges of the food.

Buprenorphine (Subutex, Suboxone): An opiate drug used to alleviate the adverse symptoms experienced when withdrawing from heroin or other opiates.


C

Cancer: A class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues and, if not stopped, bring about death of the body.

Carbohydrate Craving: A craving to eat foods rich in sugar and starches (sweets, snacks and junk foods) that intensifies as the diet becomes more and more unbalanced due to the unbalancing of the proper nutritional requirements of the body.

Cardiovascular: Involving the heart and the blood vessels.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A pinched nerve in the wrist that causes pain, tingling, and numbness.

Center For Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER): The branch of the FDA that is responsible for the evaluation and approval of new drugs.

Celexa: An SSRI drug that is prescribed to treat depression.

Central Nervous System: Brain and spinal cord.

Central Nervous System Depressants: (CNS Depressants) A variety of drugs that slow down first the operation of the brain and then begin to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and lead to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria to depression. Examples of these depressants are:alcohol; amitriptyline hydrochloride; amobarbital; amosecobarbital; chlordiazepoxide; alprazolam; chloral hydrate;chlorpromazine; desipramine; diazepam; diphenhylhydantoin sodium; diphenhydramine; doxepin hydrochloride;droperidol/a>; flurazepam; hydrochloride; glutethimide; lithium carbonate; lithium citrate; methaqualone;methyprylon; phenelzine sulfate; phenobarbital; phetobarbital; and secobarbital.

Central Nervous System Stimulants: This is a variety of drugs that stimulate the nervous system and initially create a sense of euphoria and self-confidence. However, maintaining this euphoria requires more and more of the drugs which can lead to feelings of panic, confusion, severe heart and respiratory problems and death. Examples of these drugs are: cocaine; amphetamine; methamphetamine; and methylphenidate.

Chest Pains: A severe discomfort in the chest caused by not enough oxygen going to the heart because of narrowing of the blood vessels or spasms.

Chills: A condition of appearing pale while cold and shivering; sometimes with a fever.

Chloral Hydrate: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Chlordiazepoxide: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Chlorpromazine: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Cipramil: An SSRI drug prescribed for the treatment of depression.

Clorazepate Dipotassium: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Chronic: A condition where something is continuing for a long time.

Cirrhosis of the Liver: An often fatal disease in the liver which is often caused by alcoholism.

Citalopram (Celexa, Cipramil, Emocal): An SSRI drug.

Clinical: Pertaining to medical care.

Clinically Significant: Of major importance for treating or evaluating patients.

Clinical Trial: An experiment or research study using human volunteers.

Cocaine: A highly addictive nervous system stimulant made from the leaves of the coca plant that initially creates a sense of euphoria and self confidence. However, maintaining this euphoria requires more and more of the drugwhich can lead to feelings of panic, confusion, severe heart and respiratory problems and death.

Codeine: A derivative of opium that is prescribed for coughing and for pain relief.

Concentration Impaired: Unable to easily focus your attention for long periods of time.

Confusion: Not able to think clearly and understand in order to make a logical decision.

Conjunctivitis: Infection of the membrane that covers the eyeball and lines the eyelid, caused by a virus, allergic reaction, or an irritating chemical. It is characterized by redness, a discharge of fluid and itching.

Constipation: Difficulty in having a bowel movement where the material in the bowels is hard due to a lack of exercise, fluid intake, and roughage in the diet, or due to certain drugs.

Control Group: In many studies and clinical trials, one group of patients will be given a drug while another group is given a placebo. The group taking the placebo is called the control group.

Coordination Abnormal: A lack of normal, harmonious interaction of the parts of the body when it is in motion.

Coughing: A cough is the response to an irritation, such as mucus, that causes the muscles controlling the breathing process to expel air from the lungs suddenly and noisily to keep the air passages free from the irritating material.

Crying Abnormal: Unusual and not normal fits of weeping for short or long periods of time for no apparent reason.

Cymbalta (Duloxetine Hydrochloride): An SNRI drug prescribed to treat depression and some urinary problems.

CYP2D6: A polymorphic liver enzyme responsible for the metabolism of an estimated 25 percent of all prescription drugs and most antidepressant, antipsychotic and opiate drugs. It is in the Cytochrome P450 family.

Cytochrome P450: The family of enzymes in the liver that metabolize drugs. These enzymes break down drugswhen they pass through the liver or small intestine. The five major enzymes are CYP1A, CYP3A, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6.


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D

Decreased Weight: Uncontrolled and measured loss of heaviness or weight.

Darvon or Darvocet (Propoxyphene Hydrochloride): A narcotic analgesic prescribed for pain relief.

Delirium: A state of confusion, anxiety, delusions and hallucinations. It is often accompanied by high fever. It can also be caused by excessive alcohol or drug consumption.

Delirium Tremens: A Latin term referring to the acute delirium that often occurs when an alcoholic excessive drinker attempts to withdraw from or stop drinking alcohol although it can occur while drinking excessive amounts of alcohol. Unsupervised by medical professionals, it can be fatal. Often the delirium is accompanied by uncontrolled tremors (tremens) or shaking.

Demerol (Meperidine Hydrochloride): A narcotic analgesic prescribed for pain relief.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): A nucleic acid, usually in the form of a double helix, that contains the genetic instructions specifying the development of all forms of life.

Depersonalization: A condition where one has lost a normal sense of personal identity.

Depression: A hopeless feeling of failure, loss and sadness that can result in thoughts of death.

Dermatitis: Generally irritated skin that can be caused by any of a number of irritating things such as parasites, fungus, bacteria, or foreign substances causing an allergic reaction. It is a general inflammation of the skin.

Deroxat (Paroxetine): An SSRI drug

Desipramine: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Devazepide: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Detox: Short for Detoxification, refers to the removing of the residual toxins left in the human body as a result of taking drugs. Drug Detox, from a medical prospective, is the process of medically managing the body’s physicalwithdrawal from drugs.

Detoxification or Detox Center: A medical facility that provides detoxification under medical supervision.

Detoxification: See Detox.

Detoxification Program: (Often shortened to Detox Program) This is the series of steps taken by the medical facility to safely allow someone to detox from drugs.

Diarrhea: Unusually frequent and excessive runny bowel movements that may result in severe dehydration and shock.

Diastolic: The lower number in blood pressure reading; pertaining to resting or relaxation phase of heartbeat.

Diazepam: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Dilaudid (Hydromorphone Hydrochloride): A narcotic analgesic prescribed for pain relief.

Diphenhydramine: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Diphenhylhydantoin Sodium: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria to depression.

Disequilibrium: A lack of mental and emotional balance.

Disorientation: A loss of sense of direction, place, time or surroundings as well as mental confusion of personal identity.

Dizziness: A condition of losing one’s balance while feeling unsteady and lightheaded which may lead to fainting.

Dolophine (Methadone): A highly addictive drug prescribed as a substitute for heroin.

Dopamine: A neurotransmitter in the brain.

Doxepin Hydrochloride: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria to depression.

Dreaming Abnormal: A condition of dreaming that leaves a very clear, detailed picture and impression when awake that can last for a long period of time and sometimes be unpleasant.

Droperidol: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Drug: A chemical substance, such as a narcotic or hallucinogen, that causes changes in behavior and oftenaddiction. Another definition is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease.

Drug Addiction: The compulsive use of legal and illegal drugs to the point where the user believes that he has no choice but to continue use the drugs or that he has become physically dependent on the drug.

Drug Approval: All drugs are to be approved by the FDA through the CDER. Most new drugs are approved only after being exposed to an average of 1500 patients, in Phase I, II and III clinical tests, and usually only for short periods of time. This means that drugs that cause severe adverse drug reactions may not be discovered until after the drug is approved for sale in the United States.

Drug Detoxification Center: A facility where the individual is under medical supervision and safely able to physically withdraw from a drug. Sometimes referred to as a “Detox Center” or as a “Drug Detox Center.”

Drug Interactions: Many drugs slow down the enzymes that metabolize other drugs. It is known that some SSRIdrugs inhibit the YP2D6 enzyme to the point that as many as 80 percent of the extensive metabolizers becomepoor metabolizers. This leads to more serious side effects.

Drug Rehabilitation: A process designed to eliminate the cravings and addiction to a drug and restore the health and self-determinism of the individual. Sometimes shortened to Drug Rehab.

Dry Eyes: A condition where there is not enough moisture in the eyes.

Dry Lips: A condition where there is a lack of normal moisture in the fleshy folds that surround the mouth.

Dry Mouth: A condition where the usual amount of moisture in the mouth is noticeably less.

Dry Skin: A condition where there is a lack of normal moisture/oils in the surface layer of the body. The skin is the body’s largest organ.

Duragesic Patches (Fentanyl): An opioid drug prescribed for pain relief.

Dyskinesia: Involuntary tics and movements that are often caused by long-term use of antipsychotic and otherdrugs. The involuntary tics and movements may continue even after you stop taking the drug. See TardiveDyskinesia.

Dyspepsia: A discomfort after eating. It can be heartburn, gas, nausea, a bellyache or bloating.

Dystonia: Involuntary muscle contractions.

Dysuria: A condition where there is difficult or painful urination.


E

Earache: A condition where there is a pain in the ear.

ECG Abnormal: A test called an electrocardiogram (ECG) records the activity of the heart. It measures heartbeats as well as the position and size of the heart’s four chambers. It also measures if there is damage to the heart and the effects of drugs or mechanical devices like a pacemaker on the heart. When the test is abnormal this means that one or more of the following are present: heart disease, defects, beating too fast or too slow, disease of the blood vessels leading from the heart or the heart valves, and/or a past or impending heart attack.

Eczema: A severe or continuing skin disease marked by redness, crusting and scaling with watery blisters and itching. It is often difficult to treat and will sometimes go away only to reappear again.

Effexor (Venlafaxine): A drug prescribed for depression.

Ejaculation Disorder: Dysfunction of the discharge of semen during orgasm.

Electrolyte Imbalance: Imbalance of salts or chemicals in the blood.

Elevation of Liver Function Tests: Evidence of liver or kidney damage.

Emesis: Vomiting.

Emocal: An SSRI drug.

Emotional Lability: Suddenly breaking out in laughter or crying or doing both without being able to control the outburst of emotion. These episodes are unstable as they are caused by things that normally would not have this effect on an individual.

Empiric or Empirical: Based on experience.

Enzyme: An enzyme is a complex protein that breaks down substances that are ingested. This process is calledmetabolism. While there are many different types of enzymes, one enzyme, CYP2D6, is responsible for themetabolism of an estimated 25 percent of all prescription drugs and most antidepressant, antipsychotic andopiate drugs.

Epidermal Necrolysis: An abnormal condition where a large portion of the skin becomes intensely red and peels off like a second-degree burn. Often the symptoms include blistering.

Escitalopram Oxalate (Lexapro, Cipralex, Esertia): An SSRI drug.

Etiology: The study of why a medical condition occurred.

Evaluated: Assessed; examined for medical condition.

Excitability: A condition of uncontrollably responding to stimuli.

Extensive Metabolisers (EM’s): Individuals who metabolize antidepressant, antipsychotic and opiate drugs in a more predictable way but this does not eliminate side effects from occurring.

Eye Infection: The invasion of the eye tissue by a bacteria, virus, fungus, etc.., causing damage to the tissue, with toxicity. The infection can spread to other parts of the body.

Eye Irritation: An inflammation of the eye.


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F

Faintness: A temporary condition where one is likely to go unconscious and fall.

Fall: To suddenly lose your normal standing upright position.

Faverin (Fluvoxamine Maleate): An SSRI drug.

Fatigue: Loss of normal strength that prevents doing the usual physical and mental activities.

FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the branch of the federal government which is responsible for the approval of new drugs.

Febrile: A condition of feeling feverish; relating to fever.

Fibrillation: An irregular beat of the heart or other muscle.

Feeling Unreal: A condition of awareness that one has an undesirable emotion like fear but can’t seem to shake off the irrational feeling. For example, feeling like one is going crazy but rationally knowing that it is not true. The quality of this side effect resembles being in a bad dream and not being able to wake up.

Fentanyl: A highly addictive drug prescribed for pain relief.

Fever: An abnormally high body temperature, the normal being 98 degrees Fahrenheit or 37 degrees Centigrade in humans, which is a symptom of disease or disorder in the body. The body is affected by feeling hot, chilled, sweaty, weak and exhausted. If the fever goes too high, death can result.

Flatulence : A condition of more gas than normal in the digestive organs.

Fluctin: An SSRI drug.

Flumazenil: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Flunitrazepam: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Fontex, Foxetin, Fluctin): An SSRI drug prescribed for the treatment ofdepression.

Fluvoxamine (Luvox , Faverin, Fevarin and Dumyrox): An SSRI drug prescribed for the treatment ofdepression.

Flurazepam: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Fluvoxamine Maleate (Luvox, Faverin): An SSRI drug prescribed for the treatment of depression.

Flushing: A condition where the skin all over the body turns red.

Folliculitis: A condition of the inflammation of a follicle (small body sac) especially a hair follicle. A hair follicle contains the root of a hair.

Fontex: An SSRI drug.

Forgetfulness: A condition of being unable to remember what one ordinarily would remember.

Furunculosis: Skin boils that show up repeatedly.


G

Gagging: An involuntary choking and/or involuntary throwing up.

Gastritis: A severe irritation of the mucus lining of the stomach either short in duration or lasting for a long period of time.

Gastroenteritis: A condition where the membranes of the stomach and intestines are irritated.

Gastro Esophageal Reflux: A continuous state where stomach juices flow back into the throat causing acid indigestion and heartburn and possibly injury to the throat.

Gastrointestinal: Involving the stomach and the intestines.

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: A condition where there is excessive internal bleeding in the stomach and intestines.

Gene: An individual piece of DNA. Most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.

Generic Drug: New drugs are developed under patent protection. The patent gives the sole right to sell the drugwhile the patent is in effect. The owner of the patent normally selects a name for the drug that is trademarked and owned by the company. For example, Desyrel is the brand name of trazodone. The patent rights have expired and others can market trazodone drugs in competition with Desyrel but cannot use the name Desyrel because it continues to be a registered trademark. A generic drug is supposed to be the same as a brand namedrug in dosage, safety, strength, how it is taken, quality, performance and intended use but is normally much less expensive.

Genetics: The branch of biology that studies genes and their effect.

Genome: An organism’s chromosomes which contains all of its genes and associated DNA..

Geodon (Ziprasidone): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia (involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body).

Glucose: A sugar that is the main energy source for the body.

Glucagon: A hormone produced by the pancreas that causes an increase in blood sugar levels, the opposite of the effect caused by insulin.

Glutethimide: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Gout: A severe arthritic condition that is caused by the dumping of a waste product called uric acid into the tissues and joints. It can cause the body to develop a deformity after going through stages of pain, inflammation, severe tenderness and stiffness.p>

Grand Mal Seizures (or Convulsions): A recurring sudden, violent and involuntary attack of muscle spasms with a loss of consciousness. Literally translated as great sickness


H

Halcion: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Hallucinogens: These are drugs that cause hallucinations–things that don’t actually exist except in the mind or distortion of the senses. The user may or may not know that his perceptions are distorted. Examples of hallucinogens are: Bufotenine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide; MDMA; Peyote; and Psilocybin.

Headache: A sharp or dull persistent pain in the head.

Heartburn: A burning pain in the area of the breastbone caused by stomach juices flowing back up into the throat.

Hematoma: A condition of broken blood vessels that cause a swelling in an area of the body.

Hemic: Involving or relating to blood.

Hemoglobin: The substance in the red blood cells which transports oxygen throughout the body.

Hemorrhoids: Small rounded purplish swollen veins that either bleed, itch or are painful and appear around the anus.

Hepatic Enzymes Increased: An increase in the amount of paired liver proteins that regulate liver processes causing a condition where the liver functions abnormally.

Hives: A condition of itchy areas of skin that are raised. Another name for Urticaria.

Holistic Medicine: A medical approach that attempts to consider not just the diseased area but the physical and mental causes for the problem. Holistic practitioners do not normally prescribe drugs.

Hot Flashes: Brief, abnormal enlargement of the blood vessels that causes a sudden heat sensation over the entire body. Women in menopause will sometimes experience this.

Hydrochloride: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Hydrocodone (Vicodin): A highly addictive drug derived from opium prescribed for pain relief.

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (Dilaudid): A narcotic analgesic prescribed for pain relief.

Hypercholesterolemia: A condition where there is too much cholesterol in the blood cells.

Hyperglycemia: An unhealthy amount of sugar in the blood.

Hyperreflexia: An abnormal and involuntary increased response in the tissues connecting the bones to the muscles.

Hypertension: High blood pressure, which is a symptom of disease in the blood vessels leading away from the heart. Hypertension is known as the “silent killer”. The symptoms are usually not obvious, however it can lead to damage to the heart, brain, kidneys and eyes, and can even lead to stroke and kidney failure.

Hyperthermia: Heat stroke.

Hypoglycemia: A lower than normal amount of sugar in the blood.


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I

Increased Stool Frequency: See “Diarrhea”.

Increased Weight: A concentration and storage of fat in the body accumulating over a period of time caused by unhealthy eating patterns, that can predispose the body to many disorders and diseases.

Increased Sweating: A large quantity of perspiration that is medically caused.
Indigestion. Inability to properly consume and absorb food in the digestive tract causing constipation, nausea, stomachache, gas, swollen belly, pain and general discomfort or sickness.

Infarct: Death of tissue because of lack of blood supply.

Inflammation: Swelling which is generally painful, red, and warm.

Influenza-like Symptoms: Irritation of the respiratory tract (organs of breathing) such as a cold, sudden fever, aches and pains, as well as feeling weak and seeking bed rest, which is similar to having the flu.

Insomnia: Sleeplessness caused by physical stress, mental stress or stimulants such as coffee or medications. It is a condition of being awake when one would ordinarily be able to fall and remain asleep.

Insulin: A hormone secreted by the pancreas and required to control glucose (sugar) which is necessary for the proper functions of the cells. Insulin reduces the amount of blood sugar in the body. The opposite of the effect caused by glucagon.

Intermediate Metabolizers (IM): Individuals who metabolize antidepressant, antipsychotic and opiate drugsbetter than poor metabolizers and worse than extensive metabolizers and are more likely to have serious side effects.

Irritability: A state of being abnormally annoyed in response to a stimulus.


J

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association.

Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin and the whites of the eyes.
Jaundice is often an indicator of liver or gall bladder disease.

Jaw: The mandible (the bones beneath the mouth) and the maxilla (the bones above the mouth).

Jaw Pain: The pain due to irritation and swelling of the nerves associated with the mouth area where it opens and closes just in front of the ear. Some of the symptoms are: pain when chewing; headaches; losing your balance; stuffy ears or ringing in the ears and teeth grinding.

Jaw Stiffness: The result of squeezing and grinding the teeth while asleep that can cause your teeth to deteriorate as well as the muscles and joints of the jaw.

Jitteriness: Nervous fidgeting without an apparent cause.

Joint: The area attaching two bones so that they can move together.

Joint Stiffness: A loss of free motion and easy flexibility where any two bones come together.


K

Kalemia: Potassium has been found in the blood.

Ketone: The substance produced by the body when there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the blood. If the ketone count in the blood becomes too high then serious illness or a coma can result.

Kidney: Organs located on the right and left side of the abdomen. Their purpose is to clear toxins from the blood, to regulate acid concentration and excrete urine.

Kidney Failure: When the kidneys stop functioning to clear toxins, acids and bacteria. The resulting build up can cause serious illness or death.

Kidney Stone: Small hard masses of salt deposits that the kidney forms.

Kidney Transplant: When a healthy kidney from another person replaces an unhealthy kidney.


L

Lacrimation: Crying, tearing in the eyes.

Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box characterized by hoarseness, sore throat, and coughing. It can be caused by infection, allergy, straining the voice or exposure to chemical irritation.

Larynx: The area of the throat containing the vocal cords.

Lethargy: Mental and physical sluggishness and apathy that can deteriorate into an unconscious state resembling deep sleep. A numbed state of mind.

Lexapro (Escitalopram Oxalate): An SSRI drug prescribed for depression.

Libido Decreased: An abnormal loss of sexual energy or desire.

Light-Headed Feeling: An uncontrolled and usually brief loss of consciousness caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain.

Lipoma: A tumor of mostly fat cells that is not health endangering.

Lithium Carbonate: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Lithium Citrate: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Lortab (Hydrocodone): An opioid drug prescribed for pain relief.

Lustral (Sertraline): An SSRI drug prescribed for the treatment of depression.

Luvox (Fluvoxamine Maleate): An SSRI drug prescribed for the treatment of depression.

Lymphatic: The system of vessels involved with drainage of bodily fluids.

Lymphadenopathy Cervical: The lymph nodes in the neck, which are part of the body’s immune system, get swollen and enlarged by reacting to the presence of a drug. The swelling is the result of the white blood cellsmultiplying in order to fight the invasion of the drug.


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M

Malaise: The somewhat unclear feeling of discomfort you get when you start to feel sick.

Mania: Mental illness marked by periods of great excitement, euphoria, delusions, and overactivity.

MAO (Monoamine Oxidase): The enzyme that inhibits or stops certain chemicals in the body (calledneurotransmitters)

Medazepam: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Medical Facility: This is a facility operated under the guidance of medical professionals for the purpose of treating patients.

Menorrhagia: Abnormally heavy menstrual period or a menstrual flow that has continued for an unusually long period of time.

Menses (Menstrual Period): The monthly release of blood from the uterus of non-pregnant women that begins at puberty and continues until menopause.

Menstrual Cramps: Painful, involuntary uterus contractions that women experience around the time of their menstrual period, sometimes causing pain in the lower back, abdomen and thighs.

Menstrual Disorder: A disturbance or derangement in the normal function of a woman’s menstrual period.

Meperidine (Demerol): A highly addictive drug derived from opium prescribed for pain relief.

Metabolic: Usually this refers to the breakdown of food and its transformation into energy.

Metabolism: The process of enzymes breaking down anything ingested into the body to enable it to be used by the body.

Metabolize: The process of enzymes breaking down substances in the cells.

Metallic Taste: A range of taste impairment from distorted taste to a complete loss of taste.

Methadone: A highly addictive drug prescribed as a substitute for heroin.

Methaqualone: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Methamphetamine: A highly addictive synthetic nervous system stimulant that initially creates a sense of euphoria and self confidence. However, maintaining this euphoria requires more and more of the drug which can lead to feelings of panic, confusion, severe heart and respiratory problems and death.

Methylphenidate: A highly addictive synthetic nervous system stimulant that initially creates a sense of euphoria and self confidence. However, maintaining this euphoria requires more and more of the drug which can lead to feelings of panic, confusion, severe heart and respiratory problems and death.

Methyprylon: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Midazolam (Versed): A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Migraine: Recurring severe head pain usually combined with nausea, vomiting, dizziness, flashes or spots before the eyes, and ringing in the ears.

Miscellaneous Antidepressants: A category attributed to antidepressants that are not chemically structured like the other types of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidaseinhibitors. Examples are: bupropion (Wellbutrin); bupropion extended-release (Wellbutrin XL); bupropion SR (Budeprion SR, Wellbutrin SR); Duloxetine (Cymbalta); lithium (Eskalith, Lithane, Lithonate, Lithotabs); lithium, extended-release (Eskalith CR, Lithobid); maprotiline (Ludiomil); mirtazapine (Remeron); nefazodone (Serzone); and trazodone (Desyrel).

Monoamine Oxidase (MAO): The enzyme that inhibits or stops certain chemicals in the body (calledneurotransmitters).

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A category of drugs that block MAO and supposedly assist in the treatment ofdepression. Examples are: Isocarboxazid (Marplan); Phenelzine (Nardil); and Tranylcypromine (Parnate).

Morphine: The principal component of opium that is prescribed for pain relief.

Muscle Contractions Involuntary: A spontaneous and uncontrollable tightening reaction of the muscles caused by electrical impulses from the nervous system.

Muscle Cramp: A condition where the muscles contract uncontrollably without warning and do not relax. The muscles of any body organs can cramp.

Muscle Weakness: A loss of physical strength.

Muscular Tone Increased: An uncontrolled and exaggerated muscle tension. Muscles are normally partially tensed and this is what gives us muscle tone.

Myalgia: A general widespread pain and tenderness of the muscles.

Mydriasis: The excessive dilation of the pupil of the eye.

Myocardial Infarction: A heart attack; death of heart muscle.

Myoclonus: Involuntary muscle movements.


N

Nasal Congestion: A condition where there is the presence of an abnormal amount of fluid in the nose.

Nausea: A stomach irritation with a queasy sensation similar to motion sickness and a feeling that one is going to vomit.

NDA (New Drug Application): An application for a new drug filed with the FDA.

Nervous System: It is composed of the brain, the spinal cord, and the sensory nerves. The nervous systemcarries messages to the brain from the body and motor nerves, which provide messages from the brain to the muscles.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A life threatening, rare reaction to an anti-psychotic drug marked by fever, muscular rigidity, changed mental status, and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.

Neuron: A cell in the nervous system.

Neurotransmitter: A chemical substance that transmits information from one neuron to another by crossing the space between two adjacent neurons.

New Drug Application (NDA): An application for a new drug filed with the FDA.

Nitrazepam: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Norepinephrine: A neurotransmitter thought to affect stress.

Novus: A Latin word meaning new, fresh, young; revived, refreshed, novel, unusual, extraordinary.

Novus Medical Detox Centers, LLC.: An inpatient medical detox facility located in Pasco County Florida.

Numorphan (Oxymorphone): A highly addictive drug prescribed for pain relief.

Nutrition: The study of the effects of food on health.


O

Obesity: The National Institute of Health has determined that a person is obese if they are more than 30 pounds overweight for their body type.

Ocular: Referring to the eye.

Olfactory: Referring to the sense of smell.

Olanzapine (Zyprexa): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause tardive dyskinesia (Involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body.)

Oncology: The branch of medicine treating cancer.

Onset: The first appearance of a disease or symptom.

Opiate: A group of drugs that are either derived from opium or have similar chemical ingredients. These are generally referred to as narcotics and are prescribed to inhibit pain and, literally, to put to sleep. Examples of opiates are codeine, morphine, hydromorphone (Dilaudid), oxycodone (Oxycontin), oxycodene plus aspirin (Percodan), oxymorphone (Numorphan), hydrocodone (Vicodin), meperidine (Demerol), fentanyl, methadone(Dolophine), darvon and talwin.

Opiate Antagonist: A drug that reacts against something and blocks it from creating the effect it would ordinarily create.

Opium: An addictive narcotic drug made from unripe opium poppy seeds.

Optic: Relating to vision.

Organ: A part of the body that performs one or more functions, such as the eye, ear, lungs and heart.

Ortho: A prefix meaning straight or erect.

Otitis: A condition of the inflammation of the ear.

Oxycodone (Oxycontin): A highly addictive drug prescribed for pain relief.

Oxycontin (Oxycodone): A highly addictive drug prescribed for pain relief.

Oxymorphone (Numorphan): A highly addictive drug prescribed for pain relief.


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P

Palpitation: An unusual and not normal heartbeat, that is sometimes irregular, but a rapid and forceful thumping or fluttering. It can be brought on by shock, excitement, exertion, or medical stimulants. A person is normally unaware of his/her heartbeat.

Pancreas: A gland secreting pancreatic juice (needed to digest fat and carbohydrates) and insulin andglucagon.

Pancreatitis: A chemical irritation with redness, swelling, and pain in the pancreas where digestive enzymes and hormones are secreted.

Panic Reaction: A sudden, overpowering, chaotic and confused mental state of terror resulting in being doubt-ridden often accompanied with hyperventilation and extreme anxiety.

Paresis: A feeling of weakness.

Paresthesia: A condition of burning, prickly, itchy, or tingling skin with no obvious or understood physical cause.

Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Aropax, Deroxat): An SSRI drug.

Paxil (Paroxetine): An SSRI drug.

Pelvic Inflammation: A reaction of the body to infectious, allergic, or chemical irritation, which in turn causes tissue irritation, injury, or bacterial infection characterized by pain, redness, swelling, and sometimes loss of function. The reaction usually begins in the uterus and spreads to the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and other areas in the hipbone region of the body.

Percocet (Oxycodone with Acetaminophen): A highly addictive drug derived from opium prescribed for pain relief.

Percodan (Oxycodone plus Aspirin): A highly addictive drug derived from opium prescribed for pain relief.

Pharmagenetics or Pharmacogenetics: The study of how an individual’s genetic structure affects the body’s response to drugs. The term comes from the words pharmacology and genetic.

Pharmacokinetics: Study of the way the body absorbs, distributes and gets rid of a drug.

Pharyngitis: Sore throat.

Phenelzine Sulfate: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Phenobarbital: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Phenylketonuria (PKU): An inherited condition in which a special diet must be followed to prevent mental retardation,

Phetobarbital: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Phase I : An FDA-required study which primarily focuses on the safety of the drug in humans. Phase I studies are to assess how to safely administer and dose the drug with an emphasis on evaluation of the toxic manifestations of the therapy, how the body distributes and degrades the drug, and how side effects relate to the dose. Phase I studies typically include fewer than 100 healthy volunteers or subjects.

Phase II: An FDA-required study to explore the effectiveness of the drug over a range of doses and to determine common short-term side effects. Phase II studies typically involve a few hundred subjects.

Phase III: An FDA-required study involving up to several thousand subjects. These studies examine additional uses, may provide further safety data including long-term experience, and consider additional population subsets, dose response, etc.

Phase IV: A study that is done after FDA approval to release the drug. It is intended to provide additional information about the drug’s risks and side effects.

Pheochromocytoma: A type of tumor of the adrenal gland leading to excess adrenaline.

Placebo: An inactive pill, liquid or powder with no medical value. Placebos are given to a group while a second group is given a drug. Then the two groups are evaluated to see if the drug was more effective.

Polyposis Gastric: Tumors that grow on stems in the lining of the stomach, which usually become cancerous.

Polymorphism: A term referring to variations in the enzymes, specifically for CYP2D6 which metabolizes most antidepressant, antipsychotic and opiate drugs. The result of polymorphism is that different people metabolize these drugs in different ways. Poor metabolizers (PM) are unable to adequately metabolize these dangerousdrugs. Extensive metabolizers (EM’s) are metabolizers who metabolize these drugs in a more predictable way.Intermediate metabolizers metabolize these drugs better than poor metabolizers but not as good as normal metabolizers. Ultra metabolizers have a variation of the CYP2D6 enzyme that metabolizes these drugs much faster.

Poor Metabolizers (PM): Individuals who are unable to adequately metabolize antidepressant, antipsychoticand opiate drugs resulting in dangerous accumulations of the drugs and causing severe side effects.

Prazepam: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Psychosis: A condition where a person’s ability to think and perceive are severely limited and often the thoughts and perceptions are distorted.

Psychotropic Drug: Mood-altering and hypnotic drugs including tranquilizers, anti-depressants and street drugs like cocaine.

Pneumonia Tracheitis: Bacterial infection of the air passageways and lungs that causes redness, swelling and pain in the windpipe. Other symptoms are high fever, chills, pain in the chest, difficulty breathing, and coughingwith mucus discharge.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Various physical and mental symptoms commonly experienced by women of childbearing age usually 2 to 7 days before the start of their monthly period. There are over 150 symptoms including eating binges, behavioral changes, moodiness, irritability, fatigue, fluid retention, breast tenderness,headaches, bloating, anxiety, and depression. The symptoms cease shortly after the period begins, and disappear with menopause.

Prenatal: Before birth.

Protocol: Plan of study or procedure.

Prozac (Fluoxetine): An SSRI drug prescribed for depression.

Pruritus: Extreme itching of often-undamaged skin.

Pulmonary: Pertaining to the lungs.

Pupils Dilated: An abnormal expansion of the black circular opening in the center of the eye.


Q

Q.D.: When on a prescription it means one per day. From Latin quaque die (every day).

Q.H.: When on a prescription it means every hour. From Latin: quaque hora (every hour).

Q.I.D.: When on a prescription it means four times a day. From Latin: quater in die (four times a day)

Quack: An unqualified person who asserts an ability to heal.

Quasi: A prefix meaning seemingly.

Quadriparesis: A weakness in all the arms and the legs.

Queasy: A condition of feeling nauseous.

Quetiapine (Seroquel): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia (involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body),

QT Prolongation: A very fast heart rhythm disturbance that is too fast for the heart to beat effectively so the blood to the brain falls, causing a sudden loss of consciousness and may cause sudden cardiac death.


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R

Rapid Detox: A name given to procedures where the patient is anesthetized by being placed under the same type of general anesthesia used for surgery. An opiate antagonist is then introduced into the body and this is supposed to “flush” out the opiates like oxycontin. Many patients have reported significant side effects from the procedure.

Rash: A skin eruption or discoloration that may or may not be itching, tingling, burning, or painful. It may be caused by an allergy, a skin irritation or a skin disease.

Red Blood Cell: The cells in the blood stream which contain hemoglobin.

Remeron (Mirtazapine): A drug prescribed for depression.

Remission : A disappearance of evidence of cancer or other disease.

Renal: Pertaining to the kidneys.

Respiratory System: Organs involved in breathing.

Restless Legs: A need to move the legs without any apparent reason. Sometimes there is pain, twitching, jerking, cramping, burning, or a creepy-crawly sensation associated with the movements. It worsens when a person is inactive and can interrupt one’s sleep so one feels the need to move to gain some relief.

Restlessness Aggravated: A constantly worsening troubled state of mind characterized by the person being increasingly nervous, unable to relax and easily angered.

Restoril (Temazepam): A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Reuptake: The process where a neurotransmitter (a neuron messenger) will deliver a message and then return to the neuron that sent it and be available for future use. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugsblock the reuptake of serotonin and increase the level of serotonin in the brain which is supposed to help handledepression.

Rhabdomyolysis: The breakdown and release of muscle fibers into the circulatory system. Some of the fibers are poisonous to the kidney and frequently result in kidney damage.

Rhinitis: Chemical irritation causing pain, redness and swelling in the mucus membranes of the nose.

Rhinorrhea: Runny nose.

Risperdal (Risperidone): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDAwarns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia (involuntary twitchingof the face or other parts of the body).

Risperidone (Risperdal): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDAwarns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia. (involuntary twitchingof the face or other parts of the body).

Ritalin (Methylphenidate): An amphetamine-like drug prescribed for Attention Deficit Disorder.


S

Sarafem (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride): An SSRI drug prescribed for depression and PMS.

Secobarbital: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Serdolect (Sertindole): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause tardive dyskinesia. (Involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body.)

Serlain (Sertraline): An SSRI drug.

Serlect (Sertindole): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia. (involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body).

Seromex (Fluoxetine): An SSRI drug prescribed for the treatment of depression.

Seronil (Fluoxetine): An SSRI drug prescribed for the treatment of depression.

Serotonin: A neurotransmitter believed to play an important role in the regulation of appetite, emotional mood, sleep, vomiting and sexual feelings.

Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI): A class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of clinical depression.

Serotonin Syndrome: A disorder brought on by excessive levels of serotonin. It is caused by drugs and can be fatal. Symptoms include euphoria, drowsiness, sustained and rapid eye movement, agitation, reflexes overreacting, rapid muscle contractions, abnormal movements of the foot, clumsiness, feeling drunk and dizzy without any intake of alcohol, jaw muscles contracting and relaxing excessively, muscle twitching, high body temperature, rigid body, rotating mental status between confusion and excessive happiness, diarrhea and loss of consciousness.

Seroquel (Quetiapine): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia (involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body).

Seroxat (Paroxetine): An SSRI drug.

Sertaline (Zoloft, Lustral, Serlain): An SSRI drug.

Sertindole (Serlect, Serdolect): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. TheFDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia (involuntarytwitching of the face or other parts of the body).

Serzone (Nefazodone Hydrochloride): An antidepressant drug which was taken off the market because it caused liver damage.

Sickle cell anemia: An inherited condition causing the red blood cells to die sooner and cause anemia.

Sinus Congestion: The mucus-lined areas of the bones in the face that are thought to help warm and moisten air to the nose. These areas become clogged with excess fluid or become infected.

Sinus Headache: An abnormal amount of fluid in the hollows of the facial bone structure especially around the nose. This excess fluid creates pressure, causing pain in the head.

Sinusitis: The body reacting to chemical irritation causing redness, swelling and pain in the area of the hollows in the facial bones, especially around the nose.

Skin Nodule: A bulge, knob, swelling or outgrowth in the skin that is a mass of tissue or cells.

Sleep Apnea: A breathing disorder where someone’s breathing is frequently interrupted while sleeping.

Sluggishness: Lack of alertness and energy, as well as being slow to respond or perform in life.

SNRI (Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor): A class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of clinical depression.

Somnolence: Feeling sleepy all the time or having a condition of semi-consciousness.

Spina Bifada: Malformed vertebra.

Spotting Between Menses: Abnormal bleeding between periods. Unusual spotting between menstrual cycles.

SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor): A class of drugs prescribed for depression. These drugsaffect the level of serotonin in the brain. Although there is no conclusivie scientific evidence to support it, it is asserted that inhibiting serotonin will affect emotions and moods. These drugs include: citalopram, (Celexa,Cipramil, Emocal, Sepram); escitalopram oxalate (Lexapro, Cipralex, Esertia); fluoxetine, (Prozac, Sarafem,Fontex, Foxetin, Fluctin); fluvoxamine maleate (Luvox, Faverin); paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Aropax, Deroxat); sertraline (Zoloft, Lustral, Serlain.)

Stadol (Butorphanol): A synthetic opioid drug prescribed for pain relief.

Standard of Care: A treatment plan which the majority of the medical community accepts as appropriate.

Stupor: A stunned state in which it is difficult to get a response or the attention of the subject.

Suboxone (Buprenorphine): An opiate drug used to alleviate the adverse symptoms experienced when withdrawing from heroin or other opiates.

Subutex (Buprenorphine): An opiate drug used to alleviate the adverse symptoms experienced when withdrawing from heroin or other opiates.

Suicide Attempt: An unsuccessful deliberate attack on one’s own life with the intention of ending it.

Suicidal Tendency: Will likely seriously consider and/or attempt to kill oneself.

Suicidality: Suicidal thinking and behavior.

Symptomatic: Having symptoms.

Syndrome: A condition characterized by a set of symptoms.

Systolic: Top number in blood pressure readings; pertaining to contraction phase of the heart beat.

Swallowing Difficulty: A feeling that food is stuck in the throat or upper chest area and won’t go down, making it difficult to swallow.

Syncope: A short period of light headedness or unconsciousness (black-out) also known as fainting caused by lack of oxygen to the brain because of an interruption in blood flow to the brain.

Synthetic: Not naturally occurring; man made.


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T

Tachycardia: A condition where the heart rate is sped up to above 100 beats per minute in an adult. Normal adult heart rate is 72 beats per minute.

Talwin (Pentazocine): A synthetic narcotic drug prescribed for pain.

Tardive Dyskinesia: Involuntary movements, especially of the lower face, that develop after exposure to a group of medications known as neuroleptics. The abnormal movements include:

a. Repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements;
b. Grimacing, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering and pursing, and rapid eye blinking
c. Rapid movements of the arms, legs, and trunk
d. Involuntary movements of the fingers as though the patient is playing an invisible guitar or piano.

Taste Alteration: An abnormal flavor detection in food.

Temazepam (Restoril): A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Thrombocytopenia: An abnormal decrease in the number of blood platelets in the circulatory system. A decrease in platelets would cause a decrease in the ability of the blood to clot when necessary.

Thrombosis: A condition where there is blood clotting within blood vessels.

Thrombocytopenia: A blood disease sometimes resulting in nosebleeds and bleeding gums.

Tics: A contraction of a muscle causing a repeated movement not under the control of the person usually on the face or limbs.

Tightness of Chest: A condition where there is mild or sharp discomfort, tightness or pressure in the chest area (anywhere between the throat and belly). The causes can be mild or seriously life-threatening because they include the heart, lungs and surrounding muscles.

Tinnitus: A buzzing, ringing, or whistling sound in one or both ears occurring from the use of certain drugs.

Topical: On the surface; on the skin.

Torsades de Pointes: An unusually rapid heart rhythm starting in the lower heart chambers. If the short bursts of rapid heart rhythm continue for a prolonged period it can degenerate into a more rapid rhythm and can be fatal. Literally meaning twisting of points.

Toxicity: Poisonous. Side effects or undesirable effects of a drug.

Tramadol: An atypical opioid drug prescribed for pain relief.

Trauma: An injury; wound.

Tremor: A nervous and involuntary vibrating or quivering of the body.

Tremulousness Nervous: Very jumpy, shaky, and uneasy while feeling fearful and timid. The condition is characterized by thoughts of dreading the future, involuntary quivering, trembling, and feeling distressed and suddenly upset.

Triazolam: A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Tricyclic Antidepressants: A category of drug prescribed for depression. The name was given because some of the drugs in this category affect serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, neurotransmitter in the brain. Examples are: amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep, Vanatrip); amitriptyline injection (Elavil Injection, Vanatrip Injection); amoxapine (Asendin); clomipramine (Anafranil); desipramine (Norpramin) doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan); imipramine (Tofranil); imipramine pamoate (Tofranil PM); nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor); nortriptyline oral solution (Aventyl Oral Solution); and protriptyline (Vivactil)

Tumor: Growth of body tissue.

Twitching: A sharp, jerky and spastic motion sometimes with a sharp sudden pain.


U

Ulcer: A sore.

Ultra Extensive Metabolisers (UM): Individuals who have variations in gene CYP2D6 and metabolise antidepressant, antipsychotic and opiate drugs much faster than predicted but this does not eliminate side effects from occurring.

Ultram (Tramadol Hydrochloride): An atypical opioid drug prescribed for pain relief.

Unsteadiness: A condition where one is concerned about falling or is moving erratically.

Uptake: Absorption and incorporation of a substance by living tissue.

Ureters: The ureters are the ducts that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

Urethra: The tube carrying urine from the kidney to the bladder.

Urethral Stricture: Narrowing of the opening through which urine leaves the body.

Urinary: Relating to the kidney, ureters and bladder.

Urinary Frequency: Having to urinate more often than usual.

Urogenital: Urinary tract and genital structures or functions.

Urinary Tract Infection: An invasion of bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc. that can injure tissue and progress into disease.

Urinary Urgency: A sudden compelling urge to urinate.

Urticaria: A condition of itchy areas of skin that are raised. Another name for Hives.


V

Vaginitis: A condition where the vagina is inflamed.

Varicose Vein: Unusually swollen veins near the surface of the skin that sometimes appear twisted and knotted, but always enlarged. They are called hemorrhoids when they appear around the rectum. Severe cases may develop swelling in the legs, ankles and feet, eczema and/or ulcers in the affected areas.

Vascular: Relating to blood vessels.

Vein: A blood vessel carrying blood back to the heart from the body.

Versed (Midazolam): A benzodiazepine drug prescribed as a tranquilizer, hypnotic or muscle relaxer that often leads to dependency and serious side effects.

Vertebra: One of 33 bones that form the human spinal column.

Vertigo: A sensation of dizziness with disorientation and confusion.

Vicodin (Hydrocodone): A highly addictive drug prescribed for pain relief.

Viral: Relating to a virus.

Virulent: Something that is very severe or damaging.

Virus: A microorganism causing illnesses from the common cold to AIDS.

Visual Disturbance: Eyesight is interfered with or interrupted. Some disturbances are light sensitivity and the inability to easily distinguish colors.

Vitamin: A coined word from for a natural substance that was considered “vital” to life. Vitamins have typically acquired names in order of their discovery, like Vitamin A was discovered before Vitamin B.

Vocal Cord: A vibrating muscle in the larynx that produces sound.

Vocal Cord Paralysis: A condition where one or both of the vocal chords are unable to move.

Vomiting: Involuntarily throwing up the contents of the stomach and usually getting a nauseated, sick feeling just prior to doing so.


There is hope for a new life.Call to speak to one of our experienced & caring detox advisors today!
W

Wheezing: A condition when the airways compress and produce a whistling sound.

White Blood Cell: A cell produced by the body to resist disease.

Widened Pupils: A condition where there are black circles in the middle of the eyes.

Withdrawal: The stopping of taking of a drug on which the person has become either physically and/or mentally dependent. Withdrawal from many medications can be harmful or even fatal. Many prescription labels have a warning not to discontinue taking a drug without first obtaining a doctor’s approval.

Withdrawal Symptoms: If the withdrawal is not planned and is the sudden cessation of taking a drug, the symptoms can include sweating, tremors, vomiting, insomnia and muscle and joint pain.


X

Xanax: A benzodiazepine that depresses the central nervous system and is prescribed for everything fromanxiety to insomnia.

X Chromosome: A sex chromosome. Females normally have two X chromosomes and males normally have one X and one Y chromosome.

Xeroderma: Abnormal skin dryness.

Xerosis: Abnormal dryness of a body part like the skin, eye or mouth.

X-Ray: Radiation waves shorter than visible light that penetrate substances and can record on photographic film.

XX: The sex chromosomes in a female.

X-Y: The most common sex chromosome in males.

Xylitol: A sweetener found in plants that is used as a substitute for sugar.


Y

Yawning: Involuntary opening of the mouth with deep inhalation of air.

Y-Chromosome: The sex chromosome found in males.

Yeast: A group of single-celled fungi that reproduce quickly.

Yerba Mate: A low caffeine beverage like tea containing vitamins and said to inhibit appetite.


Z

Zaleplon (Sonata): A sedative hypnotic related to benzodiazepines that affects the central nervous system and is prescribed for insomnia.

Ziprasidone (Geodon): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia (involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body).

Zoloft (Sertaline): An SSRI drug.

Zolpidem (Ambien): A sedative hypnotic related to benzodiazepines that affects the central nervous system and is prescribed for insomnia.

Zyprexa (Olanzapine): An atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The FDA warns that the continued use of atypical antipsychotic drugs can cause Tardive Dyskinesia (involuntary twitching of the face or other parts of the body).

There is hope for a new life. Call to speak to one of our experienced & caring detox advisors today!

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